Abstract: Most existing blockchains either rely on a Nakamoto-style of consensus, where the chain can fork and produce rollbacks, or on a committee-based Byzantine fault tolerant (CBFT) consensus, where no rollbacks are possible. While the latter ones offer better consistency, the former can be more efficient, tolerate more corruptions, and offer better availability during bad network conditions. To achieve the best of both worlds, we initiate the formal study of finality layers. Such a finality layer can be combined with a Nakamoto-style blockchain and periodically declare blocks as final, preventing rollbacks beyond final blocks.
As conceptual contributions, we identify the following properties to be crucial for a finality layer: finalized blocks form a chain (chain-forming), all parties agree on the finalized blocks (agreement), the last finalized block does not fall too far behind the last block in the underlying blockchain (updated), and all finalized blocks at some point have been on the chain adopted by at least k honest parties (k-support).
As technical contributions, we propose two variants of a finality layer protocol. The first variant satisfies all of the aforementioned requirements (with k=1) when combined with an arbitrary blockchain that satisfies the usual common-prefix, chain-growth, and chain-quality properties. The second one needs an additional, mild assumption on the underlying blockchain, but is more efficient and satisfies k=n/3-support. We prove both of them secure in the setting with t<n/3 Byzantine parties and a partially synchronous network. We finally show that t<n/3 is optimal for partially synchronous finality layers.
Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / blockchain, finality, Byzantine agreement
Paper presented at the PENCIL workshop co-located with EuroCrypt 2019
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