Abstract: Proactive security is the notion of defending a distributed system against an attacker who compromises different devices through its lifetime, but no more than a threshold number of them at any given time. The emergence of threshold wallets for more secure cryptocurrency custody warrants an efficient proactivization protocol tailored to this setting. While many proactivization protocols have been devised and studied in the literature, none of them have communication patterns ideal for threshold wallets. In particular a (t,n) threshold wallet is designed to have t parties jointly sign a transaction (of which only one may be honest) whereas even the best current proactivization protocols require at least an additional thonest parties to come online simultaneously to refresh the system.
In this work we formulate the notion of refresh with offline devices, where any tparties (no honest majority) may proactivize the system at any time and the remaining n−t offline parties can non-interactively “catch up” at their leisure. However due to the inherent unfairness of dishonest majority MPC, many subtle issues arise in realizing this pattern. We discuss these challenges, yet give a highly efficient protocol to upgrade a number of standard (2,n) threshold signature schemes to proactive security with offline refresh. Our approach involves a threshold signature internal to the system itself, carefully interleaved with the larger threshold signing. We design our protocols so that they can augment existing implementations of threshold wallets for immediate use– we show that proactivization does not have to interfere with their native mode of operation.
Our proactivization technique is compatible with Schnorr, EdDSA, and even sophisticated ECDSA protocols, while requiring no extra assumptions. By implementation we show that proactivizing two different recent (2,n) ECDSA protocols incurs only 14% and 24% computational overhead respectively, less than 200 bytes, and no extra round of communication.
Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / threshold cryptography; key management; digital signatures; oblivious transfer